In this presentation, professor Berhe will discuss why and how soil erosion can constitute a C sink by: (a) defining the criterion necessary for erosion to constitute a C sink; (b) comparing the rates of soil organic matter decomposition at eroding and depositional settings; and (c) identifying the potential for soils to provide protective surfaces (physical and chemical stabilization mechanisms) for soil organic matter in dynamic landscapes.
The complexity of a multivariate self-organized system results from the nonlinear interactions and feedbacks among the components. Such complexity results in a variety of attributes such as stranger attractor and 1/f fractal behavior. How does the evolutionary dynamics involving multiple variables sustain self-organization?
This presentation will analyze the evidence on behavioral drivers of farmer decisions to produce perennial energy crops and its implications for the price of biomass and the spatial pattern of production of these energy crops in the rainfed region of the U.S. This seminar will also examine the efficacy of various market and policy incentives needed to induce production of these crops.
This seminar will present observational and modeling evidence of interactions between convective clouds, soil moisture, and vegetation, and their impacts on agricultural drought and heat-extremes. This presentation will also discuss single-column and global climate model experiments that explore multiple pathways by which soil moisture and vegetation can affect climate. The results point to sensitivities of simulated clouds and climate to model representation of surface water and energy fluxes that (in the presence of feedbacks) can yield large biases in climate prediction.
In this seminar, after reviewing regional climate projections and their problems related to surface‑atmosphere interactions, Professor Fochesatto will describe observational platforms and newly developed methodologies that would enable connecting surface turbulent fluxes with atmospheric boundary layer parameters. He will discuss multiscale turbulent fluxes experiments carried out in the most vulnerable ecosystems on earth. And, he will introduce new empirical approximations of multiscale turbulent fluxes. To conclude, Prof. Fochesatto will share his research strategy for the next generation of experiments integrating observations and modeling approaches.
Low stratiform clouds in the tropics and subtropics are a substantial cooling term in the global climate system but remain a stubborn challenge for Earth System Models (ESMs). Low clouds are represented in ESMs using parameterizations that are often based on output from high-resolution process models. But how reliable are the cloud properties and processes produced by these models? Process models are typically configured using forcing that may exhibit substantial uncertainty and be only loosely constrained by observations.
Diatoms are photosynthetic, eukaryotic microalgae found in the Bacillariophyta and other families. There are more than 200 genera of living diatoms and approximately 100,000 extant species. Because of its unique property and nano-structure, diatom offers a competitive edge over other microalgae as an economical crop for biofuel, a reinforcement agent for polymers, and an absorbent for removing contaminants and radioactive materials.
Probabilistic forecasts are fundamental tools for making decisions under uncertainty in a wide variety of fields, including short-term and seasonal-term weather and energy supply and demand. This talk will present a scheme whereby a base probabilistic forecasting system that is poorly-calibrated may be recalibrated by incorporating past performance information to produce a new forecasting system that is superior to the original one, in that it produces probability distributions that demonstrably furnish more reliable decision support than the original forecast system.
Aerosols are sometimes referred to as the most confounding cog in the climate system when it comes to prognosticating the future of the Earth's climate. Their interaction with clouds makes the problem truly wicked. Here we look at a very small sub-set of the issue – that of the effect of absorbing aerosol above cloud, a persistent feature over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Africa.
This presentation will demonstrate digital methods to map soil properties such as plant available water, organic carbon content, texture, and depth of soil to name a few. Currently, the process is being utilized to map the entire nations of El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala. The process of providing predictions of spatially heterogeneous soil properties can be used both internationally and domestically for multiple implications.