There is wide consensus among scientific community that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are changing global climate, and those changes may involve not only changes in climatic means but also in extremes. It is thus of great interest to determine how the tail behavior of temperature may be affected by increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this inquiry is complicated by the fact that the observational data records are not adequate to robustly detect possible changes in this behavior that may have already occurred.
The Nordic countries have a long tradition of networking weather radar data in a de-centralized manner, and also having a common system with which data are processed locally in real time according to each organization's needs. The legacy collaboration is called NORDRAD. Using funding from the EU's Baltic Sea Region (BSR) programme, this Nordic concept was extended to the whole BSR through two projects, BALTRAD and BALTRAD+, which were carried out 2009-2014. This presentation will outline the BALTRAD and BALTRAD+ projects, what was achieved technically, scientifically and politically, and it will give an outlook for the coming years.
In an environment of rising energy consumption and a setting of climate change, our challenge as concerned scientists is to be proactive during a period of rapid renewable energy expansion in order to reduce global biodiversity loss from high magnitude warming and address the potential for harm to animal and plant populations.
The vast amount of organic carbon stored in soils of the northern circumpolar permafrost region is a potentially vulnerable component of the global carbon cycle. Yet, estimates of the quantity, decomposability, and combustibility of the carbon contained in permafrost-region soils remain highly uncertain, limiting our ability to predict the release of greenhouse gases due to permafrost thawing.
Nearly 80% of all structural failures are due to mechanical fatigue, which often results in catastrophic, dangerous, and costly failure events. However, a comprehensive model to predict fatigue remains an elusive goal. One of the major challenges is that fatigue is intrinsically a multiscale process that is dependent on the macroscale geometry (i.e., shape) of a device as well as its microscale structural features (e.g., the non-metallic inclusions, crystal grains, or voids found in metal alloys). The presented work will develop a novel multiscale method for fatigue prediction by simulating macroscale geometries explicitly while concurrently calculating the simplified local response of microscale inclusions.
The Geospatial Research Laboratory (GRL) providers the warfighter and Nation with superior knowledge of the battlefield through innovative basic and applied research in geospatial and related sciences.
GRL conducts geospatial research, development, technology and evaluation of current and emerging geospatial technologies that will help characterize and measure phenomena within the physical (terrain) and social (cultural) environment encountered by the Army.
A transient Mixing Cell Model (MCM) was developed for assessing groundwater fluxes in complex hydro-geological basins prevailing transient groundwater flow system. It is aimed for complex systems with vague sub-aquifer structure, lack of hydro-geological information.
Climate variability and change has the potential to cause significant impacts on our economic, ecological, social, and cultural resources. Hurricanes Sandy and Irene provide current examples of such random disruptions. In a changing climate, civil infrastructures (such as dams, bridges, and culverts) are increasingly compromised during extreme precipitation events.
Radiogenic helium-4 produced by the alpha-decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's mantle and crust is degassed to the atmosphere and eventually escapes to outer space. Assuming an equilibrium between production and degassing, the continental crust is estimated to provide about 70% of the total Earth degassing flux.
Water shortages, and the prospect of such shortages, have been repeatedly faced and addressed as population and economic growth placed increasing demands on available water over the past century. Such challenges have been most common in arid areas, but also have been encountered in some more humid portions of the US during times of drought.