The Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) experiment in the Sierras de Córdoba mountain range of north-central Argentina is an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) funded campaign designed to improve understanding of cloud lifecycle and organization in relation to environmental conditions so that cumulus, microphysics, and aerosol parameterizations in multi-scale models can be improved.
Model simulations of the earth-atmosphere system are often evaluated by comparing simulations of present-day climate with observations. In the case of clouds, satellite observations provide an attractive baseline for evaluation because they provide good (often global) spatial coverage and in some cases data records that span more than a decade.
Integrated modeling assists in the identification of problems in water resources management and facilitates decision making from a systems point of view. Existing models, however, were developed to address specific problems such as flooding, climate change, groundwater, or those related to socioeconomics.
Hydro-climatic extremes are closely related to the change in climate at different time horizons including interannual, decadal or multi-decadal scales. Retrospective investigation of historical variability of hydro-climatic extremes is paramount to better understand their patterns, causes and effects.
Effects of energy generation on land and water resources are controlled and mitigated in the USA through various Acts and regulations. Despite this, energy generation still leaves legacy of land and water resources degradation. Often unsustainable production is linked with an inability to account for full costs of production that involves addition of externality costs to private costs of production.
Our classic view of soil organic matter is that it is a penecontemporaneous mixture in which an aged, diagenetically altered component (humic material) is derived from previous inputs of photosynthetically-derived material. In reality, particulate organic carbon (POC) in surficial environments (both soils and sediments) is a mixture that can be fundamentally resolved into three general categories: contemporary (recently fixed C), aged (century to millennial time scale) and ancient (millions of years old).
The future availability and security of our managed water, energy, and land resources is of paramount importance. There is increasing concern that human-induced changes will alter and exceed the background variability caused by the contemporary environment. A climacteric challenge is to identify where and when these resources become substantially limited in the coming decades and what are the primary drivers.
Currently, because of changing climate conditions; changing use demands; new use technologies; emphasis on habitat conservation, public use, solitude, and cultural site preservation; and a plethora of other demands, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has challenges beyond cumulative effects. One major challenge is how these many demands inform objectives in our Land Use Plans that are measurable, meaningful, and realistic.
South America’s soils contain 10.3% of the carbon stock of the world soils. South America is home to 5.67% of the world population, and it accounts for 8.64% of the world food production and 21% of the meat production. Low-carbon agriculture can offset anthropogenic emissions and increase annual food production in South America by about 10%.
Water is critical, not only to meet personal water needs but to generate the energy to drive a healthy economy and to meet the challenges of food for an ever-growing world population. Increased climate variability and conflicting demands for water require us to fundamentally rethink how we should manage our limited groundwater and surface water resources so that energy production and economic vitality does not come at the cost of potable water availability, food security and environmental quality.